- "SUPER - AGN feedback at Cosmic Noon: a multi-phase and multi-scale challenge". Mainieri et al. 2020, The Messenger, 182, 45
- "SUPER I. Toward an unbiased study of ionised outflows in z~2 active galactic nuclei: survey overview and sample characterisation". Circosta et al. 2018, A&A, 620, 82
- "SUPER II. Spatially resolved ionised gas kinematics and scaling relations in z~2 AGN host galaxies". Kakkad et al. 2020, A&A, 642, A147
- "SUPER III. Broad Line Region properties of AGN at z~2", Vietri et al. 2020, A&A, 644, A175
- "SUPER IV. CO(J=3-2) properties of active galactic nucleus hosts at cosmic noon revealed by ALMA', Circosta et al. 2021, A&A, 646, A96
Circosta et al. (2018). "SUPER I. Toward an unbiased study of ionised outflows in z~2 active galactic nuclei: survey overview and sample characterisation"
This paper introduce the survey and describe the targets selection criteria. It presents also a full characterisation of the multi-wavelength properties of each target. Spectral energy distribution fitting of UV-to-FIR photometry was used to derive stellar masses (4 × 109 - 2 × 1011 M☉), star formation rates (25 - 680 M☉ yr-1) and AGN bolometric luminosities (2 × 1044 - 8 × 1047 erg s-1). In addition, X-ray spectral analysis was used to measure the obscuring column densities (up to 2 × 1024 cm-2) and luminosities in the hard 2 - 10 keV band (2 × 1043 - 6 × 1045 erg s-1). Finally, we classify our AGN as jetted or non-jetted according to their radio and FIR emission.
Kakkad et al. (2020) "SUPER II. Spatially resolved ionised gas kinematics and scaling relations in z~2 AGN host galaxies"
We present the first SINFONI results for a sample of 21 Type 1 AGN spanning a wide range in bolometric luminosity (log Lbol = 45.4–47.9 erg s−1). The main aims of this paper are to determine the extension of the ionised gas, characterise the occurrence of AGN-driven outflows, and link the properties of such outflows with those of the AGN. We detect outflows in all the Type 1 AGN sample based on the w80 value from the integrated spectrum, which is in the range ∼650–2700 km s−1. There is a clear positive correlation between w80 and the AGN bolometric luminosity (> 99% correlation probability), and the black hole mass (98% correlation probability). A comparison of the PSF and the [O III] radial profile shows that the [O III] emission is spatially resolved for ∼35% of the Type 1 sample and the outflows show an extension up to ∼6 kpc. The relation between maximum velocity and the bolometric luminosity is consistent with model predictions for shocks from an AGN-driven outflow. The escape fraction of the outflowing gas increases with the AGN luminosity, although for most galaxies, this fraction is less than 10%.
Vietri et al. (2020). Broad Line Region properties of AGN at z~2
The main aims of this paper were: (a) to derive reliable estimates for the masses of the black holes and accretion rates for the Type-1 AGNs in this survey; and (b) to characterise the properties of the AGN-driven winds in the broad line region (BLR). Concerning the last point, we confirm that the CIV line width does not correlate with the Balmer lines and its peak is blueshifted with respect to the [OIII]-based systemic redshift. We interpreted this findings as the presence of outflows in the BLR with derived velocities up to ∼4700 km s−1. We derive mass outflows rates in the range 0.005–3 M⊙ yr−1 for the BLR winds. The mass outflow rate of the BLR winds shows a correlation with bolometric luminosity as steep as that observed for winds at sub-parsec scale distances and in the NLR. The kinetic power of the BLR winds inferred is Ėkin∼ 10[ − 7 : −4] × Lbol, and in 28% of the SUPER sample the kinetic power of the BLR and NLR winds are comparable.
Circosta et al. (2021). CO(J=3-2) properties of active galactic nucleus hosts at cosmic noon revealed by ALMA
In this paper we present the first systematic study of the CO properties of AGN hosts at z~2 for a sample of 27 X-ray selected AGN spanning two orders of magnitude in AGN bolometric luminosity (Lbol= 10^44.7-10^46.9 erg/s) by using ALMA Band 3 observations of the CO(3-2) transition (~1" angular resolution). To search for evidence of AGN feedback on the CO properties of the host galaxies, we compared our AGN with a sample of inactive (i.e., non-AGN) galaxies from the PHIBSS survey with similar redshift, stellar masses, and SFRs. The two samples show statistically consistent trends in the LCO(3-2)-Lfir and LCO(3-2)-M* planes. However, there are indications that AGN feature lower CO(3-2) luminosities (0.4-0.7 dex) than inactive galaxies at the 2-3sigma level when we focus on the subset of parameters where the results are better constrained and on the distribution of the mean LCO(3-2)/M*. Therefore, even by conservatively assuming the same excitation factor r31, we would find lower molecular gas masses in AGN, and assuming higher r31 would exacerbate this difference. We interpret our result as a hint of the potential effect of AGN activity (e.g., radiation and outflows), which may be able to heat, excite, dissociate, and/or deplete the gas reservoir of the host galaxies.